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خرپا (truss)

خرپا سازه‌ای صلب از واحد‌های مثلثی شکل است که از اتصال اجزای باریک و بلند ساخته شده است. خرپا‌ها....

www.civilart.ir

خرپا سازه‌ای صلب از واحد‌های مثلثی شکل است که از اتصال اجزای باریک و بلند ساخته شده است. خرپا‌ها....

www.civilart.ir

 

خرپا سازه‌ای صلب از واحد‌های مثلثی شکل است که از اتصال اجزای باریک و بلند ساخته شده است. خرپا‌ها توانایی تحمل نیروهای کششی و فشاری را دارند.

خرپاها از جملهٔ ساده‌ترین اعضاء باربر سازه‌ها هستند که در کل به عنوان اعضاء خمشی عمل نموده و در سقف‌ها، پل‌ها، و سازه‌های هوا و فضا مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند. دراین گونه سازه‌ها به علت عدم وجود نیروی برشی و لنگر خمشی در تک تک اعضاء متشکله مثلث‌ها اتصالات باید به صورت مفصلی مدل شود.

خرپا بر حسب تعریف از مجموعه‌ای از اعضا‌یی بوجود می‌آید که همگی در یک صفحه قرار داشته و ترکیب آنها یک شبکه مثلثی ایجاد نماید. چون در خرپا‌ها فرض می‌شود که اعضا در انتهای خود به اعضای دیگر لولا شده‌اند بنابر این شکل مثلثی تنها شکل پایدار خواهد بود.

www.civilart.ir

خرپاها به سه گروه زیر تقسیم می شوند:


1) خرپاهای ساده یا Simple Trusses: که شبکه بندی مثلثی در آنها کاملا رعایت شده.


2)خرپاهای مرکب یا Compounded Trusses : این نوع خرپاها از ترکیب مناسب در یا چند خرپای ساده ایجاد میشوند که این ترکیب میتونه بوسیله ی یک گره یا یک عصو ویا سه عضو موازی و غیر متقارب ایجاد شود.


3)خرپاهای پیچیده و مبهم
هرگاه عضو یا اعضای جدیدی به خرپا اضافه شوند بدون اینکه گره جدیدی به آن اضافه شود،خرپا یک خرپای نامعین ایستایی میشود.

پایداری-ناپایداری-معینی-نامعینی خرپاها:

اگر تعداد گره های خرپا را با j و تعداد عضو های آن که همان میله ها هستند رو با m و تعداد عضوهای خرپا رو با R نشون بدیم داریم:
A) اگر m+R<2j باشد خرپا ناپایدار استاتیکیست.
B) اگر m+R=2j خرپا معین است اما پایداری و ناپایداری هندسی آن باید بررسی شود
C) اگر m+R>2j باشد خرپا نامعین استاتیکیست ولی پایداری و ناپایداری هندسی آن باید بررسی شود.

www.civilart.ir

كاربرد خرپاها :

 خرپاها از مفید ترین فرم ساختمانی هستند كه در انواع ساختمانها وماشینها به كار می روند. ساختمانهای خرپایی،در مقابل نیروهای واردآمده مقاومت بسیاری دارند واز لحاظ اقتصادی نیز ساختن آنها مقرون به صرفه است .اتصال میله های خرپاها به یكدیگر چنانچه فلزی باشند ،به وسیله میخ وپیچ انجام می گیرد .وچنانچه خرپای چوبی باشد،اتصالات آنها به سقفهای با دهانه های زیاد ونیز پله ها به كار می برند. بعضی از ماشینهای سنگین ،مثل جرثقیلها،نیز از خرپا استفاده می شود.خرپاها ضمن داشتن مقاومت زیاد،از نظر وزن سبك هستند. استخوانبندی بال بعضی از پرندگان كه برای پرواز باید سبك باشند،به صورت خرپا تكوین یافته است .اسكلت بندی هواپیماها را نیز به همین علت از نوع خرپایی انتخاب می كنند.

www.civilart.ir


پروفیل های رایج در خرپا سازی :
در خرپاسازی میتوان بر حسب مورد از پروفیلهای فولادی مختلف استفاده كرد.1-استفاده از پروفیلهای L و در خرپاهای سبك به نحوی كه وترهای بالایی وپایینی از I وقطرهایL استفاده می شود .2-استفاده از پروفیلهای IPE یا IPB و  و L به طوری كه وترهای بالایی وپایینی از I واعضای قائم از IPE یا IPB وقطریها از 2L پشت به پشت .
3-استفاده از پروفیلهای مثل IPEIو 2 [ .4-در طراحی خرپاهای بسیار سنگین از پروفیلهای IPB استفاده می‌كنند ولی وترهای بالایی و پایینی به صورت افقی است.
5-امروزه به كمك تكنیك نورد كردن پروفیلهای قوطی مربع و مربع مستطیل بسیار ساده شده است و هیچ‌گونه اضافه قیمت ساخت برای این نوع پروفیلها در مقایسه با دیگر پروفیلها در خرپاسازی وجود ندارد.
6- ازپرو فیل های لوله ای شكل در خرپا سازی استفاده می شود . تنها مشكل در استفاده از این نوع پروفیل ها بریدن وجفت و جور كردن قطعات به یكدیگر است . استفاده از این نوع پروفیل در صنایع جرثقیل سازی اهمیت بسیار دارد.



اجزای تشكیل دهنده خرپا عبا رتند از : نیروی وارد از لاپه- عضو قطری، عضو قا ئم ، وتر بالایی (كنش) وتر پایینی (عضو مورب زرین)وتر بالایی(عضو مورب بالایی)
اتصالات در خرپا ها :

اعضای خر پاها به وسیله جوش ، پیچ و مهره ویا پرچ به یكدیگر متصل می شوند اتصال اعضا گاهی به مستقیم وگاهی به مسیله ورقی موسوم به ورق اتصال صورت می گیرد :بنا براین در عمل نه تنها حالت اتصال مفصلی در انتهای اعضا وجود ندارد، بلكه پیوند آنها به یكدیگروبه ورق اتصال از گیرداری قابل ملا حظه ای نیز برخوردار است . توجه به نكاتی خاص موجب می شود كه فرض اتصال مفصلی و نیرو ی محوری خالص در اعضای خرپا ها واقعیت بیشتری پیدا كند . از مهمترین ملا حظات در این مورد آن است كه در طرح خرپا سعی شود تا امتداد محور میله ها از نقطه مشتركی بگذرد . همچنین اعمال نیرو های خا رجی به محل گروه ها از شرایط دیگر این فرض می باشد .
ورقه های اتصال در خرپا :

ورق اتصال در خرپا با توجه به فرم اعضای آن بدست می آید .یكی از مسائلی كه گاهی در اتصالات خرپا ها پیش می آید خمش ورق اتصال است . خمش ورق اتصال در بعضی موارد موجب تغییر فرم و كج شدن خرپا واحتمالا خرابی آن می شود . بسیاری از خر ابیهای ساختمانهای خرپایی به علت اتصال ضعیف (جوش یا پرچ یا پیچ )و خمش ورق اتصال اتفاق افتاده است . گسیختگی جوش ، پارگی ورق و برش پیچ وپرچها را نیز باید از ضایعات اتصالات ضعیف خرپا ها به شمار آورد.
لاپه ریزی روی خرپاها و مهار كردن آنها :

 خر پا ها یا قابهای خرپایی معمولا به فواصل 3تا6 متر از یكدیگر انتخاب می شوند وبر روی آنها تیر های (لاپه) در امتداد عمو د برصفحه خرپا ها ویا قابهای خر پایی قرار داده می شود . برای نمونه قاب ساختمانی از این نوع با تیر های طو لی و عرضی متكی بر آنها در شكل نشان داده شده است . بهتر است لاپه ها روی گره های خر پا قرار گیرند .

 باد بند وانوع آن در ساختمانهای خر پایی :

تعریف : به طور كلی باد بند عبارتند از مجموعه میله ها ویا پرو فیل هایی ( كشها و مهار ها ) است كه نو عا به صورت ضربدری قا بهای ساختمانی را بهم متصل می كند . چون مقاومت قابهای خر پایی در برابر نیروهای عمود بر صفحه قابهابسیار كم است ، لذا برای بالا بردن مقاومت ساختمان در امتدادعمود بر قابهای خرپایی، از عناصر ساختمانی دیگری به نام ( باد بند) یا ((مهارهای جانبی ))استفاده می كنند ، فلسفه وجودی باربند جانبی آن است كه به نحوی مقاومت مقاومت سیستم قابها را در جهت عمود بر قابها افزایش دهد. سیستم باد بند عبارتند از مجموعه ای از كشها یا مهارهایی كه به طور ضربدری قابها را به هم متصل می‌سازد . در این حالت قابهای انتهای ساختمان توسط باد بندها به اولین قاب درونی متصل شده‌اند . این ترتیب تقویت برای ایجاد استحكام جانبی مناسب است و عملكرد آن به این صورت است كه سیستم قابهای خرپایی به این وسیله به هم متصل می‌شود و حالت قفسه‌ای را پیدا می‌كند . این قفسه در جهات مختلف تحت اثر نیروهای جانبی دارای صلبیت و پایداری است و واژگون نمی‌شود ، در مواردی نیز سیستم بادبند را هر چند دهنه قاب در میان ، بین دو قاب انجام می‌دهند.چپ و راستها را می‌توان در سطح میله‌های بالایی خرپا یا در سطح میله‌های پایینی خرپا قرار داد.
خرپای فضایی:

یكی از مقاومترین و جالبترین سازه‌ها ی شبكه فضایی (( حقیقی )) یا خرپای فضایی است . از خرپاهای فضایی ، به علت سختی و استحكام زیادی كه دارند ، برای پوشش فضاهای كارخانه‌ها ، نمایشگاها ،استخرها و … استفاده می‌شود . در عمل از این سیستم برای پوشاندن سقفهایی به مساحت 90*90 بدون بهره‌گیری از ستون استفاده می‌كنند . در طی سالهای اخیر از شبكه‌های دو لایه‌ای كه یك یا هر دو لایه آنها از شش ضلعی‌هایی تشكیل می‌‌شود ، برای احداث بام استفاده‌ شده است . جنس و نوع پروفیلهای به كار رفته در خرپاهای فضایی ممكن است لوله فلزی ، آلومینیومی ،نبشی و یا قوطی باشد كه اتصالات به صورت مفصلی است .

استاندارد خرپا در ایران

در ایران سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی كشور طی دو نشریه، استانداردهای مورد نیاز خرپاهای فولادی را تدوین نموده است:

· نشریه 82 سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی کشور، معاونت امور فنی، ویرایش سال 1385
·
نشریه 94 سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی کشور، معاونت امور فنی، ویرایش سال 1385

همچنین موسسه استاندارد و تحقیقات صنعتی ایران استاندارد شماره 2909 را در دو بخش برای خرپاها و بلوكهای سقفی مورد مصرف در صنعت ساختمان ارائه نموده است:

  • تیرچه مورد مصرف در سقف‌های تیرچه بلوک - ویژگی‌ها و روش‌های آزمون

  • بلوک‌های سقفی مورد مصرف در سقف های تیرچه بلوک- ویژگی‌ها و روش های آزمون

در این دو نشریه تمامی موارد مورد نیاز خرپاها و خرپاهای فلزی از جمله خرپاهای پیش ساخته فولادی و نحوه استفاده از فولادهای نورد سرد شده (اصلاح شده) را ارائه نمود است.

www.civilart.ir

منابع:

۱- اخوان لیل آبادی، محمد رضا، طاحونی، شاپور، تحلیل سازه‌ها، انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی واحد صنعتی امیر کبیر، تهران ۱۳۸۴.

۲- http://ww.phalls.com/

۳- http://www.afshinsalari.com

۴- http://www.fuladsk.com/

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چهارشنبه 9 مرداد 1398 12:39 ب.ظ
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سه شنبه 8 مرداد 1398 10:11 ب.ظ
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سه شنبه 8 مرداد 1398 12:32 ب.ظ
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دوشنبه 7 مرداد 1398 01:20 ب.ظ
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چهارشنبه 26 تیر 1398 12:03 ب.ظ
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دوشنبه 10 تیر 1398 07:04 ب.ظ
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دوشنبه 10 تیر 1398 04:39 ب.ظ
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یکشنبه 9 تیر 1398 07:43 ب.ظ
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شنبه 8 تیر 1398 02:01 ب.ظ
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.
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‘I'm keen on how you will think.' , he said.

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‘I like determined women. Someone discussion the things they want. Someone that won't say yes because I said yes. Someone who's not afraid of attempting something mroe challenging,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid of trying new things, especially with regards to making something mroe challenging in the sack ', I intimate ‘And I enjoy women who are direct, who cut through the chase, like you merely did. To be
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